关于angular:使用MockHttpClientModule替换HttpClientModule学习心得

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前言

之前的我的项目测试采纳的是应用 Stub 替换原有的组件进行测试,现在的问卷零碎采纳了新的思维,就是应用应用 MockHttpClientModule 替换 HttpClientModule,前后台接口齐全对立,更靠近于实在申请,本文以总结学习心得为主,总结一下该办法的思路。

办法

首先看一下要测试的办法:

/**
 * 通过试卷 ID 获取答卷 
 * 1. 如果存在尚未实现的答卷,则返回尚未实现的答卷 
 * 2. 如果不存在尚未实现的答卷,则新建一个答卷返回 
 * @param id 试卷 ID
 */getByPaperId(id: number): Observable<AnswerSheet> {return this.httpClient.get<AnswerSheet>(`${this.baseUrl}/${id}`);
}

测试方法:

beforeEach(() => {
  TestBed.configureTestingModule({
    imports: [MockApiModule],
 providers: [MockHttpClient]
  });
 service = TestBed.inject(AnswerSheetService);
});
it('测试模仿接口服务是否失效', () => {expect(service).toBeTruthy();
 let called = false;
 service.getByPaperId(123).subscribe(data => {expect(data.id).toEqual(123);
 called = true;
 });
 getTestScheduler().flush();
 expect(called).toBeTrue();});

MockHttpClient

export class MockHttpClient {constructor(private mockApiService: MockApiService) { }
  get<T>(url: string, options?: {
    headers?: HttpHeaders | {[header: string]: string | string[];};
 params?: HttpParams | {[param: string]: string | string[];};
 }): Observable<T> {return this.mockApiService.get<T>(url, options);
 }

MockApiService

get 办法

/**
 * get 办法 * @param url 申请地址
 * @param options 选项
 */ 
 get<T>(url: string, options = {} as {
    headers?: HttpHeaders | {[header: string]: string | string[];};
 params?: HttpParams | {[param: string]: string | string[];};
 }): Observable<T> {
    return this.request<T>('get', url, {
      observe: 'response',
 responseType: 'json',
 headers: options.headers,
 params: options.params
 });
 }
}

request

/**
 * 所有的 GETPOSTDELETEPUTPATCH 办法最终均调用 request 办法。* 如果以后 request 不可能满足需要,则请移步 angular 官网提供的 HttpClient * * 该办法先依据 method 进行匹配,接着依据 URL 进行正则表达式的匹配。* 匹配胜利后将参数传入接口并获取模仿接口的返回值 * * @param method 申请办法
 * @param url 申请地址
 * @param options 选项
 */
 request<R>(method: string, url: string, options: {
  body?: any;
 headers?: HttpHeaders | {[header: string]: string | string[];};
 reportProgress?: boolean;
 observe: 'response';
 params?: HttpParams | {[param: string]: string | string[];};
 responseType?: 'json';
 withCredentials?: boolean;
}): Observable<R> {
  let result = null as R;
 let foundCount = 0;
 const urlRecord = this.routers[method] as Record<string, RequestCallback<any>>;
 for (const key in urlRecord) {if (urlRecord.hasOwnProperty(key)) {const reg = new RegExp(key);
 if (reg.test(url)) {const callback = urlRecord[key] as RequestCallback<R>;
 callback(url.match(reg), options.params, options.headers, (body) => {
          result = body;
 foundCount++;
 if (foundCount > 1) {throw Error('匹配到了多个 URL 信息,请检定注入服务的 URL 信息,URL 信息中存在匹配抵触');
 }
        });
 }
    }
  }
  if (null === result) {throw Error('未找到对应的模仿返回数据,请查看 url、method 是否正确,模仿注入服务是否失效');
 }
  return testingObservable(result);
}

registerMockApi

/**
 * 注册模仿接口 * @param url 申请地址
 * @param method 申请办法
 * @param callback 回调
 */
registerMockApi<T>(method: RequestMethodType, url: string, callback: RequestCallback<T>): void {if (undefined === this.routers[method] || null === this.routers[method]) {this.routers[method] = {} as Record<string, RequestCallback<T>>;}
  if (isNotNullOrUndefined(this.routers[method][url])) {throw Error(` 在地址 ${url} 已存在 ${method} 的路由记录 `);
 }
  this.routers[method][url] = callback;
}

AnswerSheetApi

registerGetByPaperId()

private baseUrl = '/answerSheet';

/**
 * 注册 GetByPaperId 接口 
 * 注册实现后,当其它的服务尝试 httpClient 时 
 * 则会按此时注册的办法、URL 地址进行匹配 
 * 匹配胜利后则会调用在此申明的回调函数,同时将申请地址、申请参数、申请 header 信息传过来 
 * 咱们最初依据接管的参数返回特定的模仿数据,该数据与后盾的实在接口放弃严格对立 */
 registerGetByPaperId(): void {
  this.mockHttpService.registerMockApi<AnswerSheet>(
    `get`,
 `^${this.baseUrl}/(d+)$`,
 (urlMatches, httpParams, httpHeaders, callback) => {const id = urlMatches[1];
 callback({id: +id});
 }
  );
}

injectMockHttpService

/**
 * MOCK 服务。*/mockHttpService: MockApiService;
 
 
/**
 * 注入 MOCK 服务 
 ** @param mockHttpService 模仿 HTTP 服务
 */
injectMockHttpService(mockHttpService: MockApiService): void {
  this.mockHttpService = mockHttpService;
 this.registerGetByPaperId();}

MockApiService

constructor()

/**
 * 注册模仿接口 
 * @param clazz 接口类型
 */
 static registerMockApi(clazz: Type<Api>): void {this.mockApiRegisters.push(clazz);
}

/**
 * 循环调用从而实现所有的接口注册 */
 constructor() {
 MockApiService.mockApiRegisters.forEach(api => {const instance = new api();
 instance.injectMockHttpService(this);
 });
}

// AnswerSheetApi
MockApiService.registerMockApi(AnswerSheetApi);

testingObservable

/**
 * 返回供测试用的观察者 
 * 如果以后为测试过程中,则调用 cold 办法返回观察者将不出抛出异样。* 否则应用 of 办法返回观察者 
 * @param data 返回的数据
 * @param delayCount 提早返回的工夫距离
 */
 export function testingObservable<T>(data: T, delayCount = 1): Observable<T> {
  try {
    let interval = '';
 for (let i = 0; i < delayCount; i++) {interval += '---';}
    return cold(interval + '(x|)', {x: data});
 } catch (e) {if (e.message === 'No test scheduler initialized') {return of(data).pipe(delay(delayCount * 500));
 } else {throw e;}
  }
}

MockApiModule


/**
 * 模仿后盾接口模块 
 * 因为 MockHttpClient 依赖于 MockApiService 
 * 所以必须先申明 MockApiService,而后再申明 MockHttpClient 
 * 否则将产生依赖异样
 * 每减少一个后盾模仿接口,则须要对应增加到 providers。* 否则模仿接口将被 angular 的摇树优化摇掉,从而使得其注册办法失败 
 */
 @NgModule({
  providers: [
    MockApiService,
 {provide: HttpClient, useClass: MockHttpClient},
 AnswerSheetApi
  ]
})
export class MockApiModule {}

总结

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